The Rizal Provincial Library was established on December 28, 1951. It was duly organized under the joint auspices of the Provincial Government of Rizal and the Bureau of Public Libraries which was later renamed and called the National Library of the Philippines.
During the start of the Rizal Provincial Library, it occupied the session hall of the Rizal Provincial Board located in Pasig, Rizal. It started with just a few collection of books in six book shelves and the subscribed daily newspaper, one long reading table and fifteen (15) chairs. It was then headed by the late Gov. Sixto Antonio.
With the existing number of readers and clients of the library, the acquisition of books was given priority. It was during that time that the Provincial Government decided to provide a separate building to house the Provincial Library. It was relocated to a rented building located at Kapasigan in downtown Pasig near the Immaculate Concepcion Parish Church. The Pasig Catholic College and Colegio Del Buen Consejo and stayed there until the year 1979.
During the time of then Governor Benjamin B. Esguerra, (in 1975) the Sangguniang Bayan of Taytay filed a resolution with concurrence of Mrs. Lualhatividad P. Maglipon, then the Provincial Librarian, for the transfer of the Provincial Library. By virtue of an Administrative Code, as amended relative to Republic Act no. 2264 known as Autonomy Law of the Local government, Resolution 76-320 and Ordinance no. 76 was approved on September 1976 approving the transfer of the Rizal Provincial Library as a counterpart of the municipality at the Sangguniang Panlalawigan and granting the amount of PhP 14,000.00 for the construction of a section/part of the building under the stage of Plaza Libertad ( later renamed San Juan Gym) located in Barangay San Isidro, Taytay, Rizal.
The Rizal Provincial Library was directly under the supervision of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan as mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991, Art.1, secretary to the Sanggunian, Sec. 469 (c), (9).
On June 17, 1994, by virtue of R.A. 7743, the establishment of Municipal and City Libraries and reading centers nationwide was mandated.
Already established, the Rizal Provincial Library was housed in Plaza Libertad for twenty (20) years, serving Rizalenos. In 1999-2000, at the time of Governor Casimiro M. Ynares, Jr., it was decided that a building be constructed for the Rizal Provincial Library.
On March 2001, under the supervision of Ms. Lucila G. Dela Vega, Librarian IV., the Rizal Provincial Library was relocated and transferred to the Rizal Provincial Library building at L. Wood Street, Barangay Dolores, Taytay, Rizal, adjacent to the Taytay Elementary School (T.E.S.)
In the year 2006, the province of Rizal was chosen as pilot province by the National Computer Center and the Rizal Province Community eCenter was established. The NCC awarded four (4) computer units in 2006 and (2) computer units in 2011. On the same year 2011, the National Library of the Philippines awarded the Rizal Provincial Library a computer unit with the KOHA/OPAC system (On Line Public Access Catalogue).